About Canada’s trade facts

Information about Canada’s trade facts including indicator definitions and data sources.

Overview
What is Canada's trade facts?
The Trade Facts application provides user-customizable data reports on Canada’s:
  • International merchandise trade by sector and trading partner
  • Trade in services and foreign direct investment
  • Other national economic statistics such as GDP and inflation rate
  • Provincial trade and economic statistics
Canada’s trade facts app is updated daily with data obtained from Statistics Canada. This app is managed by Global Affairs Canada’s Office of the Chief Economist.
International commerce
International commerce: definitions and sources
Canada’s trade and investment statistics by partner country, sector and rank.
National economic indicators

National economic indicators: definitions and sources

Canada’s national statistics including economic, population, and international investment and trade indicators.

  • Macro economic indicators
  • Foreign direct investment
    • Foreign direct investment in Canada, stock ($M): Inward stock of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), otherwise known as Foreign Direct Investment in Canada (FDIC), is an ownership stake in a Canadian company or project made by an investor, company, or government from a foreign country. “Stock” is the position in, or holding of, assets and liabilities at a point in time.
    • Canadian direct investment abroad, stock ($M): Outward stock of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), otherwise known as Canadian Direct Investment Abroad (CDIA), is an ownership stake in a foreign company or project made by an investor, company, or government from Canada. “Stock” is the position in, or holding of, assets and liabilities at a point in time.
    • Foreign direct investment in Canada, flow ($M): Inward flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), otherwise known as Foreign Direct Investment in Canada (FDIC) records the value of transactions made by an entity in a foreign country to another entity in Canada, during a given period of time. Flows reflect the creation, transformation, exchange, transfer, or extinction of economic value and involves a change in the volume, composition or value of an entity’s assets and liabilities.
    • Canadian direct investment abroad, flow ($M): Outward flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), otherwise known as Canadian Direct Investment Abroad (CDIA) records the value of transactions made by an entity in Canada to another entity in a foreign country, during a given period of time. Flows reflect the creation, transformation, exchange, transfer, or extinction of economic value and involves a change in the volume, composition or value of an entity’s assets and liabilities.
    Sources:
  • Balance of international payments
    • Exports of goods and services ($M): Exports of goods and services are the amount of goods and services that are exported from Canada to foreign destinations, including both domestic exports and re-exports.
    • Imports of goods and services ($M): Imports of goods and services are the amount of goods and services that are imported to Canada from foreign destinations, including both domestic imports and re-imports.
    • Trade balance on goods and services ($M): The trade balance on goods and services is the difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports for a given period of time and is the largest component of a country’s balance of payments (BOP). A country that imports more goods and services than in exports in terms of value has a trade deficit while a country that exports more goods and services than it imports has a trade surplus. The formula for calculating the trade balance on goods and services is value of exports – value of imports.
    • Balance on current account ($M): The balance on current account is the balance on the current account. A current account is an account which covers all transactions (other than those in capital and financial accounts) that involve exchange of economic values (goods, services and investment income) and current transfers.
    Source:
  • Travel
    • Total receipts from travel ($M): Total receipts from travel are the amount of spending done by foreign visitors on Canadian-produced goods and services. It includes spending that may take place outside of Canada, for instance, the purchase of an airline ticket from a Canadian international carrier, to travel to Canada.
    • Total payments for travel ($M): Total payments from travel refer to the spending on foreign-produced goods and services done by Canadian tourists while travelling outside Canada.

    Sources:
  • Selected components of GDP
    • Wages, salaries and supplementary labour income ($M): Labour income represents the income generated in the products of goods and services accruing to the labour factor of production. Labour income, often referred to as labour compensation, is comprised of two components— wages and salaries, and supplementary labour income. Wages and salaries include all types of regular earnings, special payments, stock options and bonus payments. Supplementary labour income includes employers' contributions or payments to a variety of employee benefit plans for the health and financial well-being of employees and their families. For more information, please see Statistic’s Canada’s page Wages, salaries and supplementary labour income.
    • Corporate profits before taxes ($M): Corporates profits before taxes are a company's profits before the company has to pay corporate income tax.
    • Federal Government Expenditures ($M): Federal government expenditures are the expenses that the federal government of Canada takes part in. Some of the components of the federal government expenses are social security, national defence and healthcare.
    • Provincial Government Expenditures ($M): Provincial government expenditures are the expenses that provincial governments of Canada take part in. Provincial government expenditures refer to the expenses that affect the province as a whole. Some examples of the expenses are education, healthcare, the environment, agriculture and highways.
    • Business Investment Fixed Capital ($M): Business Investment in Fixed Capital is the value of investment in fixed capital made by businesses. It includes the fixed capital investment of both incorporated and unincorporated business.
    Sources:
  • Contribution to real GDP by sectors
    • All indicators (%): Real GDP is an inflation-adjusted measure that reflects the value of all goods and services produced by an economy in a given year. Real GDP is expressed in base-year prices using 2012. The industry groupings used follow a North American Classification Industry System (NAICS), using high-level 2-digit groupings and includes some 3-digit level summary statistics. For more information on NAICS, please see Statistic’s Canada’s page North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Canada.
    Sources:
  • Research and development
    • Gross expenditures on research and development (R&D) (GERD) ($M): Gross expenditures on R&D are the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D carried out by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government and laboratories in Canada. It includes R&D funded from abroad, but excludes domestic funds for R&D performed outside the domestic economy. The Gross expenditures on R&D are based on nominal prices.
    • (GERD) as a % of GDP (%): GERD as a % of GDP is the gross domestic expenditures on R&D expressed as a percentage of the GDP.
  • Source:
  • Interest rates - banks prime rates
    • United States (%): The term interest rates refer to the rate that commercial banks charge their borrowers. The Federal Reserve bank sets the federal funds overnight rate which serves as the basis for the prime rate, the starting point for other interest rates. The annual and quarterly interest rates are calculated using the monthly averages of “Prime rate charged by banks”.
    Source:
  • Exchange rates
    • The exchange rate is the price of a country’s currency in terms of another country’s currency. Annual and quarterly exchange rates are calculated using monthly averages by using end of day rates.
    Source:
Provincial economic indicators
Provincial economic indicators: definitions and sources
Canada’s provincial statistics including economic, population, and international trade indicators.
  • Macro economic indicators
  • Merchandise exports (customs)
    • Top 5 export destinations: Merchandise exports are goods that are exported from Canada to foreign destinations, including both domestic exports and re-exports. This section records the value of merchandise trade for the whole world and the top 5 markets in exports in exports value. Merchandise trade exports are calculated on a customs basis. Customs-based goods trade involves measuring the physical movements of goods across border.
    • Top 5 export commodities (HS2): Commodities refer to the raw materials, goods or resources produced in Canada and are shipped to other countries to be distributed and sold. The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) is an international goods classification system developed by the World Customs Organization and is used by Canada to classify and exported and imported goods. HS2 codes refer to the first two digits of the HS code. The first 2 digits provide an indication of the product and refer to the various chapters of the list of products. For more information on HS and HS2 codes, please refer to the page HS and HS2 Code List.
    Source:
  • Merchandise imports (customs)
    • Top 5 import destinations: Merchandise imports are goods that are imported to Canada from foreign destinations, including both domestic imports and re-imports. This section records the value of merchandise trade for the whole world and the top 5 markets in imports value. Merchandise trade imports are calculated on a customs basis.
    • Top 5 import commodities (HS2): Commodities refer to the raw materials, goods or resources produced abroad and is shipped to Canada to be distributed and sold. The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) is an international goods classification system developed by the World Customs Organization and is used by Canada to classify exported and imported goods. HS2 codes refer to the first 2 digits of the 6-digit HS code. The first 2 digits provide an indication of the product and refer to the various chapters of the list of products. For more information on HS and HS2 codes, please refer to HS and HS2 Code List.
    Source:
  • Two-way merchandise trade (customs)
    • Top 5 two-way merchandise trade destinations: Two-way merchandise trade is the sum of the merchandise exports and imports between the province of interest and the country listed. This section records the value of merchandise trade for the whole world and the top 5 markets in two-way trade value. Two-way merchandise trade values are calculated on a customs basis.
    • Top 5 merchandise commodities (HS2): For each commodity, the total value of exports and imports are added and the top 5 of these resulting totals are listed.
    Source:
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